Background. We investigated the combined effects of chronic PM2.5 exposure and habitual exercise on the decline of renal function and the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a large cohort in Taiwan. Methods. The present data analysis included a total of 108, 615 participants aged 18 years or above who were recruited between 2001 and 2016. All participants underwent at least two medical examinations. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. The incident of eGFR decline ≥ 30% was defined as a decline in eGFR of ≥ 30% during the study period, while the incident CKD was defined as an eGFR <60mL/min/1.73m2 or a newly self-reported physician-diagnosed CKD in the subsequent visits. The satellite-based spatiotemporal model was used to estimate PM2.5 exposure at each participant's address. Information on habitual exercise was collected using a standard self-administered...

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