Distinct T helper cells, including Th9 cells help maintain homeostasis in the immune system. Vitamins play pivotal role in the immune system through many mechanisms, including regulating the differentiation of T helper cells. Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) and retinoic acid possess hormone-like properties and are the bioactive metabolites of vitamin D and A, respectively, that signal through heterodimers containing the common retinoid X receptor. In contrast to individual treatment with the vitamins that significantly attenuates IL-9 production from Th9 cells, Th9 cells treated with both vitamins demonstrated IL-9 production similar to untreated Th9 cells. This is associated with reciprocal expression of PU.1 and Foxp3. While the recruitment of PU. 1 was significantly impaired to the Il9 gene in the presence of calcitriol or retinoic acid in Th9 cells, addition of both vitamins together increased the recruitment of PU.1 to the Il9 gene. Calcitriol and retinoic acid together impaired the recruitment of...

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