Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the endocannabinoid system (ECS) modulate several functions through neurodevelopment including synaptic plasticity mechanisms. The interplay between n-3PUFA and the ECS during the early stages of development, however, is not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of maternal n-3PUFA supplementation (n-3Sup) or deficiency (n-3Def) on ECS and synaptic markers in postnatal offspring. Female rats were fed with a control, n-3Def, or n-3Sup diet from 15 days before mating and during pregnancy. The cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mothers and postnatal 1-2 days offspring were analyzed. In the mothers, a n-3 deficiency reduced CB1 receptor (CB1R) protein levels in the cortex and increased CB2 receptor (CB2R) in both cortex and hippocampus. In neonates, a maternal n-3 deficiency reduced the hippocampal CB1R amount while it increased CB2R. Additionally, total GFAP isoform expression was increased in both cortex and hippocampus in neonates of the n-3Def group....

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