Objectives. Muscle cramps occur in 33% to 78% of patients with dialysis. The etiology of muscle cramps is poorly understood, and no clear evidence-based prevention or treatment strategies exist. Improved interventions are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin K2 in reducing the frequency and severity of muscle cramps in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods. This multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial was conducted from June 2019 to May 2020. Each participant received vitamin K2 (360 µg/d) or placebo for two 4-wk phases, and then crossed to the alternative arm for two 4-wk phases after a 2-wk washout. The primary endpoint was the frequency of muscle cramps during HD. The secondary endpoints were severity and duration of muscle cramps during HD. Results. A total of 523 patients with maintenance HD were screened for muscle cramps, including 41 patients with muscle cramps refractory to conventional...

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