The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of total replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with three alternative protein sources in the concentrate supplement on performance, feed efficiency, milk composition, and diurnal ingestive behavior of Holstein × Gyr cows under an intensive system of grazing on tropical pasture. Twelve cows with 512 ± 61kg of BW (mean ± standard deviation), 20.4 ± 4.14kg/d of milk yield, and 86 ± 40 days in milk were distributed in a triplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The treatments consisted of four concentrate supplements formulated with SBM (Control), cottonseed meal (CSM), peanut meal (PM), or sunflower meal (SFM). The animals were kept in intensive rotational grazing (n = 24 paddocks) on Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum syn. Megathyrsus maximus) pasture, with 1 day of occupation per paddock and a stocking rate of 4.3 AU/ha. The daily amount of concentrate supplement offered...

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