Palm oil production in Malaysia contributes significantly to the national economy, but its production has adverse effects on the environment. A solution to mitigate environmental impacts and increase resource use efficiency is integrating palm oil and beef cattle production. This can reduce deforestation, needs for grazing land, and reduce herbicide use in plantations when cattle graze the weeds. Integration is more complex if the plantation and cattle are owned by different parties, as plantation owners indicate they perceive little or no benefit from integration. As a result, plantation managers consider the undergrowth as weeds and do not aim at improving the nutritional quality and biomass. This disinterest may explain why the potential of the undergrowth as forage has been understudied. The first objective of this study was, therefore, to assess the nutritional quality of the undergrowth in an integrated oil palm-cattle system where cattle are owned by smallholder farmers. The...

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