Electronegative LDL (LDL (-)) and free fatty acids (FFAs) are circulating risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and have been associated with inflammation. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) represents a key cytokine in the development of CVD; however, the initial trigger of IL-1β in CVD remains to be explored. In this study, we investigated the combined effects of LDL (-) from the plasma of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients or diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits and bovine serum albumin bound palmitic acid (PA-BSA) on IL-1β production in macrophages. Macrophages derived from THP-1 cells or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were independently treated with LDL (-), PA-BSA or cotreated with LDL (-) and PA-BSA. The results showed that nLDL and/or PA-BSA had no effect on IL-1β, and LDL (-) slightly increased IL-1β; however, cotreatment with LDL (-) and PA-BSA resulted in abundant secretion of IL-1β in macrophages. Rabbit LDL (-) induced the elevation of...

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