Chilli is one of the valuable spices commercialised globally, added as condiments in various cuisines and is easily susceptible to aflatoxin contamination (produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus) during pre-and post-harvesting stages. The important factors such as temperature, moisture content and humidity affect the growth of fungi producing aflatoxins. Chillies contaminated with aflatoxins could be carcinogenic and thus can pose a threat to the general population leading to the loss of international trade market. Therefore, to overcome this problem, there is a need for some effective and novel technologies such as gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation minimises the toxicological effects of aflatoxins by inhibiting the growth as well as the proliferation of Aspergillus species. In this work, the natural occurrence of aflatoxins including the contribution of gamma irradiation on either eliminating or controlling the aflatoxins in red chilli is reviewed. © 2021 Institute of Food Science and Technology.

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