In the last 10,000 years, wheat has become one of the most important cereals in the human diet and today, it is widely consumed in many processed food products. Mostly considered a source of energy, wheat also contains other essential nutrients, including fiber, proteins, and minor components, such as phytochemicals, vitamins, lipids, and minerals, that together promote a healthy diet. Apart from its nutritional properties, wheat has a set of proteins, the gluten, which confer key technical properties, but also trigger severe immune-mediated diseases, such as celiac disease. We are currently witnessing a rise in the number of people adhering to gluten-free diets unwarranted by any medical need. In this dynamic context, this review aims to critically discuss the nutritional components of wheat, highlighting both the health benefits and wheat/gluten-related disorders, in order to address common misconceptions associated with wheat consumption. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland....

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