Predictive microbiology has steadily evolved into one of the most important tools to assess and control the microbiological safety of food products. Predictive models were traditionally developed based on experiments in liquid laboratory media, meaning that food microstructural effects were not represented in these models. Since food microstructure is known to exert a significant effect on microbial growth and inactivation dynamics, the applicability of predictive models is limited if food microstructure is not taken into account. Over the last 10-20 years, researchers, therefore, developed a variety of models that do include certain food microstructural influences. This review provides an overview of the most notable microstructure-including models which were developed over the years, both for microbial growth and inactivation. Â© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.