Background. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with significant health benefits, including prevention of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Given the important migratory flow from Romania to Italy in recent decades, this study seeks to evaluate the differences between the nutritional habits of Romanian children and adolescents in Romania compared with those of Romanian children who moved to Italy or were born in Italy from both Romanian parents. Methods. To assess adherence to MD, parents of Romanian children in Romania (RCR) and Romanian children in Italy (RCI) answered questions from an adapted version of the KIDMED test. Results. The results show that the high KIDMED index among RCI is significantly higher than the same index among RCR (68.09 versus 17.76, p < 0.05). RCR obtained a higher KIDMED score on different items: they had a lower consumption of fast food and sweets but an increased consumption of nuts, yogurts, and cheese. Conclusions....

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