Tilapia is one of the most extensively farmed fish on a global scale. Lately, many studies have been carried out to select and produce probiotics for cultured fish. Bacteria from the genera Bacillus, Lactiplantibacillus (synonym: Lactobacillus), and Lactococcus are the most widely studied with respect to their probiotic potential. Among these microorganisms, Lactococcus lactis has outstanding prospects as a probiotic because it is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and has previously been shown to exert its probiotic potential in aquaculture through different mechanisms, such as competitively excluding pathogenic bacteria, increasing food nutritional value, and enhancing the host immune response against pathogenic microorganisms. However, it is not sufficient to simply select a microorganism with significant probiotic potential for commercial probiotic development. There are additional challenges related to strategies involving the mass production of bacterial cultures, including the selection of production variables that positively influence microorganism metabolism. Over the last ten...

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