Roasted yellow split pea (YSP) flours were used to substitute wheat flour, at 10-20% (flour basis) in wheat bread formulations. Rheometry showed that roasted YSP flour addition increased elasticity and resistance to deformation and flow of the composite doughs, particularly at 20% substitution; instead, at 10% addition (either raw or roasted YSP flour), there were no effects on dough rheology and bread textural properties. Breads fortified with roasted YSP flour at levels >10% exhibited lower loaf-specific volume and harder crumb compared to control (bread without YSP flour). Moreover, only breads with 20% roasted YSP flour displayed a significantly higher staling extent and rate, compared to control, as assessed by large deformation mechanical testing and calorimetry (starch retrogradation) of crumb preparations. This formulation also showed a large increase in β-sheets and β-turns at the expense of α-helix and random coil conformations in protein secondary structure as assessed by FTIR spectroscopy. Roasting...

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