Animal products, in particular dairy and fermented products, are major natural sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These are known for their antimicrobial properties, as well as for their roles in organoleptic changes, antioxidant activity, nutrient digestibility, the release of peptides and polysaccharides, amino acid decarboxylation, and biogenic amine production and degradation. Due to their antimicrobial properties, LAB are used in humans and in animals, with beneficial effects, as probiotics or in the treatment of a variety of diseases. In livestock production, LAB contribute to animal performance, health, and productivity. In the food industry, LAB are applied as bioprotective and biopreservation agents, contributing to improve food safety and quality. However, some studies have described resistance to relevant antibiotics in LAB, with the concomitant risks associated with the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to foodborne pathogens and their potential dissemination throughout the food chain and the environment. Here, we summarize the...

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