Dyeing vegetables with harmful compounds has become an alarming public health issue over the past few years. Excessive consumption of these dyed vegetables can cause severe health hazards, including cancer. Copper sulfate, malachite green, and Sudan red are some of the non-food-grade dyes widely used on vegetables by untrusted entities in the food supply chain to make them look fresh and vibrant. In this study, the presence and quantity of dye-based adulteration in vegetables are determined by applying1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. The proposed technique was validated by treating some vegetables in-house with different dyes and then soaking them in various solvents. The resulting solutions were collected and analyzed using NMR relaxometry. Specifically, the effective transverse relaxation time constant, T2, eff, of each solution was estimated using a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence. Finally, the estimated time constants (i.e., measured signatures) were compared with a library of...

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