Ultrasound is one of the most commonly used methods to prepare Pickering emulsions. In the study, zein nanoparticles-flaxseed gum (ZNP-FSG) complexes were fabricated through various preparation routes. Firstly, the ZNP-FSG complexes were prepared either through direct homogenization/ultrasonication of the zein and flaxseed gum mixture or through pretreatment of zein and/or flaxseed gum solutions by ultrasonication before homogenization. The Pickering emulsions were then produced with the various ZNP-FSG complexes prepared. ZNP-FSG complexes and the final emulsions were then characterized. We found that the complex prepared by ultrasonication of zein as pretreatment followed by homogenization of the ZNP with FSG ((ZNPU-FSG)H) exhibited the smallest turbidity, highest absolute potential value, relatively small particle size, and formed the most stable complex particles. Meanwhile, complex prepared through direct ultrasonication plus homogenization on the mixture ((ZNP-FSG)HU) showed significantly decreased emulsifying properties and stability. Compared with the complex without ultrasonic treatment, the complex and emulsion,...

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