In this study, the effect of different horizontal and vertical orientations of a model sample (cuboid gellan gel samples containing Maillard reactants) on microwave heat processing was investigated in the solid-state and magnetron microwave systems. To achieve this target, seven orientations inside both microwave cavities were defined. Two of the investigated sample orientations were in a vertical position with and without turntable rotation, and five in a horizontal position. Furthermore, samples at horizontal orientations were put at an angle position without turntable rotation. To analyze the microwave heating patterns, infrared (IR) pictures and photographs of the gellan gel samples were taken after processing to document IR-based thermal and Maillard color changes, respectively. Three main factors for improvement of the heating homogeneity were identified: first, processing samples in the solid-state microwave system; second, position variation of the sample by turntable activated; and third, horizontal orientation. In addition, it was observed that...

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