Milk has two main components that have high nutritional value-milk protein (casein and whey protein), and lactose. These components are extensively used in various areas, especially in food, i.e., as sweeteners, stabilizers, functional food ingredients, nutritional fortifiers, etc. Non-enzymatic browning refers to a series of chemical reactions between sugars and proteins that make food more appetizing. Non-enzymatic browning reactions include degradation of ascorbic acid, lipid peroxidation, caramel reaction, and the Maillard reaction (MR). The MR, as one of the four non-enzymatic browning reactions, has been well studied and utilized in food fields. Milk protein and lactose, as two main components of milk, have high chemical activities; they are used as reactants to participate in the MR, generating Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The MR involves a condensation reaction between carbonyl groups of various sugars and amino groups of amino acids/proteins. These MRPs have different applications in various areas, including food flavor,...

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