Removing foodborne pathogens from food surfaces and inactivating them in wash water are critical steps for reducing the number of foodborne illnesses. In this study we evaluated the impact of surfactants on enhancing nanobubbles' efficacy on Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria innocua removal from spinach leaves. We evaluated the synergistic impact of nanobubbles and ultrasound on these two pathogens inactivation in the cell suspension. The results indicated that nanobubbles or ultrasound alone could not significantly reduce bacteria in cell suspension after 15 min. However, a combination of nanobubbles and ultrasonication caused more than 6 log cfu/mL reduction after 15 min, and 7 log cfu/mL reduction after 10 min of L. innocua and E. coli, respectively. Nanobubbles also enhanced bacterial removal from spinach surface in combination with ultrasonication. Nanobubbles with ultrasound removed more than 2 and 4 log cfu/cm2 of L. innocua and E. coli, respectively, while ultrasound...

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