Flower head orders and the use of GA3 (gibberellic acid) treatment could be two influencing factors determining the bioactive compound levels in artichoke, but little to no information is available about their effects. In this study, we have therefore evaluated the influence of these factors on the hydroxycinnamic acid and luteolin derivative levels in three categories of artichoke: Seed-propagated open-pollinated cultivars; vegetatively propagated cultivars; and seed-propagated hybrids. The hydroxycinnamic acids and luteolin derivatives were quantified by RP-HPLC-DAD. The average flower head weight was the lowest in tertiary heads and GA3-treated artichokes, followed by secondary and main heads. Moreover, the hydroxycinnamic acid and luteolin derivatives levels were significantly higher in tertiary heads than in secondary or main heads. In addition, the GA3 treatment significantly reduced the hydroxycinnamic acid content and, in contrast, improved luteolin derivatives levels. These effects depended on the flower head order and cultivar. Knowledge...

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