Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae (BSFL) are a promising, sustainable source of nutrients, however, there is limited knowledge regarding the food safety of consuming BSFL. This study determined the safety of consuming BSFL for direct human consumption in terms of microbial, heavy metal and allergen content. Microbial counts were determined using ISO (International Organization for Standardization) methods, heavy metals were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and allergens were determined via Orbitrap mass spectrometry and ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kits. Feed and killing method influenced the presence of Bacillus cereus (p = 0.011), and only the killing method influenced Escherichia coli (p < 0.00) and total viable count (TVC) (p < 0.00). Blanching resulted in a 3-log reduction in E. coli and a 3.4 log reduction in the TVC counts. Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were not detected in the BSFL samples. Heavy...

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