A complex consortium of yeasts is the principal responsible of wine fermentation, being Saccharomyces cerevisiae the main driver. The use of selected yeast, beginning with Saccharomyces strains, is one of the main achievements in microbiological control in the wine industry. However, the use of single strain starters of S. cerevisiae and the limited variability of strains has increased the objections to its use due to the production of wines with a homogeneous profile. New tendencies in winemaking have emphasized the microbiological terroir and challenged the use of selected starters from different areas, including Non-Saccharomyces yeast or multi-strain starters in order to add complexity to the biochemical composition of wines. Nevertheless, these strategies also harbor their own challenges. In the present mini-review, we focus on the alternatives to current commercial yeast starters mainly based on the local multispecies starters or controlled spontaneous fermentations, considering the advantages and limitations of each...

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