A wide variety of foods manufactured by nanotechnology are commercially available on the market and labeled as nanoproducts. However, it is challenging to determine the presence of nanoparticles (NPs) in complex food matrices and processed foods. In this study, top-down-approach-produced (TD)-NP products and nanobubble waters (NBWs) were chosen as representative powdered and liquid nanoproducts, respectively. The characterization and determination of NPs in TD-NP products and NBWs were carried out by measuring constituent particle sizes, hydrodynamic diameters, zeta potentials, and surface chemistry. The results show that most NBWs had different characteristics compared with those of conventional sparkling waters, but nanobubbles were unstable during storage. On the other hand, powdered TD-NP products were found to be highly aggregated, and the constituent particle sizes less than 100 nm were remarkably observed after dispersion compared with counterpart conventional bulk-sized products by scanning electron microscopy at low acceleration voltage and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. The...

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