Between January and July 2021, there were as many as 30 recalls in the U.S. due to potential Listeria monocytogenes contamination from a variety of food products including muffins, kimchi, chicken salad, ready-to-eat chicken, smoked fish, mushrooms, queso fresco cheese, ice cream, turkey sandwiches, squash, and other foods. A contaminated food chain can serve as a potential vehicle for transmitting antibiotic resistant bacteria since there is a slow emergence of multi-drug antibiotic resistance in L. monocytogenes. Biocides are essential for safe food processing, but they may also induce unintended selective pressure at sublethal doses for the expression of antibiotic resistance in L. monocytogenes. To better understand the sources of such slow emergence of antibiotic resistance through biocide residues present in the food environments, we are working on the role of sublethal doses of commonly used biocides in defined broth and water models for understanding L. monocytogenes adaptation. We...

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