This study focused on the effect of cycled heat-moisture treatment (cHMT) on the in vitro digestibility, rheological, and physicochemical properties of water caltrop starch. The amylose content increased significantly by cHMT, whereas damaged starch content decreased only in the groups with more than two cycles applications. CHMT generally increased the weight-average molecular weight, except for single cycle treatment which showed the reverse result. In thermal properties, the onset temperature (T), peak temperature (Tp), and conclusion temperature (Tc) increased, while the enthalpy needed to complete the gelatinization was lowered by cHMT. Water caltrop starch paste showed less shear-thinning behavior with cHMT. Meanwhile, the viscosity and tendency to form strong gel were enfeebled with modification. CHMT significantly changed predicted glycemic index (pGI) value, especially in samples that underwent the most cycles of treatment, which showed the lowest pGI compared to native and other treatment. These results suggested that...

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