The vegetable watercress (Nasturtium officinale R.br.) is, besides being a generally nutritious food, a rich source of glucosinolates. Gluconasturtiin, the predominant glucosinolate in watercress, has been shown to have several health beneficial properties through its bioactive breakdown product phenethyl isothiocyanate. Little is known about the immunoregulatory effects of watercress. Moreover, anti-inflammatory effects have mostly been shown in in vitro or in animal models. Hence, we conducted a proof-of-concept study to investigate the effects of watercress on the human immune system. In a cross-over intervention study, 19 healthy subjects (26.5±4.3 years; 14 males, 5 females) were given a single dose (85 g) of fresh self-grown watercress or a control meal. Two hours later, a 30 min high-intensity workout was conducted to promote exercise-induced inflammation. Blood samples were drawn before, 5 min after, and 3 h after the exercise unit. Inflammatory blood markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, MCP-1, MMP-9) were analyzed...

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