Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) bran oil is rich in linoleic acid, which accounts for more than 60% of its lipids. Ethyl linoleate (ELA) is a commercially valuable compound with many positive health effects. Here, we optimized two ELA processing steps, urea complexation (UC) and molecular distillation (MD), using single-factor and response surface analyses. We aimed to obtain a highly concentrated ELA at levels that are permitted by current regulations. We identified the optimal conditions as follows: 95% ethanol-to-urea ratio=15:1 (w/ w), urea-to-fatty acid ratio=2.5:1 (w/ w), crystallization time=15 h, and crystallization temperature =-6 °C. Under these optimal UC conditions, ELA concentration reached 45.06%. The optimal MD purification conditions were established as follows: distillation temperature=145 °C and vacuum pressure=1.0-5.0×10-2 mbar. Under these conditions, ELA purity increased to 60.45%. Together, UC and MD were effective in improving the total concentration of ELA in...

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