Different types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) have been widely used to control food safety and quality. To develop an accurate and reproducible ELISA, false immunodetection results caused by non-specific binding (NSB) and cross-reaction must be prevented. During the case study of sandwich ELISA development for the detection of porcine hemoglobin (PHb), several critical factors leading to NSB and cross-reaction were found. First, to reduce the NSB of the target analyte, the selection of microplate and blocker was discussed. Second, cross-reactions between enzyme-labeled secondary antibodies and sample proteins were demonstrated. In addition, the function of (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) was evaluated. Overall, this study highlights the essence of both antibody and assay validation to minimize any false-positive/negative immunodetection results. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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