Rice consumption is an important source of arsenic exposure. Little has known about the impact of rice consumption on arsenic metabolism, which is related to insulin resistance. In this study, we examined the associations between rice consumption and arsenic metabolism, and between arsenic metabolism and insulin resistance in non-diabetic U.S adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2016. Rice consumer was defined as ≥0.25 cups of cooked rice/day. HOMA2-IR was calculated using HOMA2 Calculator software based on participant's fasting glucose and insulin values. Urinary arsenic concentrations below limits of detection were imputed first, and then arsenic metabolism (the proportions of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA) to their sum) were calculated (expressed as iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%). Using the leave-one-out approach, rice consumers compared with non-consumers had a 1.71% (95% CI: 1.12%, 2.29%) higher DMA% and lower MMA% when iAs% fixed; a 1.55%...

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