Resistant starch (RS) is the starch fraction that eludes digestion in the small intestine. RS is classified into five subtypes (RS1-RS5), some of which occur naturally in plant-derived foods, whereas the others may be produced by several processing conditions. The different RS subtypes are widely found in processed foods, but their physiological effects depend on their structural characteristics. In the present study, foods, nutrition and biochemistry are summarized in order to assess the type and content of RS in foods belonging to the Mediterranean Diet (MeD). Then, the benefits of RS consumption on health are discussed, focusing on their capability to enhance glycemic control. RS enters the large bowel intestine, where it is fermented by the microbiome leading to the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids as major end products, which in turn have systemic health effects besides the in situ one. It is hoped that this review will help to...

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