This study evaluated the effect of the combination of ultrasound and phenyllactic acid (PLA) on inactivating Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis biofilm cells and determined the possible antibiofilm mechanism. S. aureus and S. enteritidis biofilm cells were separately treated with ultrasound (US, 270 W), phenyllactic acid (PLA, 0.5% and 1%), and their combination (US + 0.5% PLA, and US + 1% PLA) for 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min. Biofilm inactivation, polysaccharide, and respiratory chain dehydrogenase assays were conducted. US and PLA had a synergistic effect on inactivating bacterial cells in S. aureus and S. enteritidis biofilms. The combination of US and PLA significantly decreased the contents of soluble and insoluble polysaccharides and the activity of respiratory chain dehydrogenase in the biofilm cells compared to the single treatment. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and intracellular adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) analyses indicated that the combination of US and PLA seriously...

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