The effects of room temperature water, hot water, and steam tempering methods were investigated on sorghum kernel physical properties, milling, flour, and bread-making properties. Overall tempering condition and tempering moisture content were found to have a significant effect on the physical properties. Milling properties were evaluated using a laboratory-scale roller milling flowsheet consisting of four break rolls and eight reduction rolls. Room temperature tempering (18% moisture for 24 h) led to better separation of bran and endosperm without negatively impacting flour quality characteristics i.e., particle size distribution, flour yield, protein, ash, damaged starch, and moisture content. Bread produced from the flour obtained from milling sorghum kernels tempered with room temperature water (18% m.c for 24 h) and hot water (16% m.c at 60 °C for 18 h) displayed better bread-making properties i.e., high firmness, resilience, volume index, higher number of cells, and thinner cell walls when compared to other tempering...

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