Volatile profiling of whole milk powder is valuable for obtaining information on product quality, adulteration, legislation, shelf life, and aroma. For routine analysis, automated solventless volatile extraction techniques are favored due their simplicity and versatility, however no single extraction technique can provide a complete volatile profile due to inherent chemical bias. This study was undertaken to compare and contrast the performance of headspace solid phase microextraction, thermal desorption, and HiSorb (a sorptive extraction technique in both headspace and direct immersion modes) for the volatile analysis of whole milk powder by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Overall, 85 unique volatiles were recovered and identified, with 80 extracted and identified using a non-polar gas chromatography column, compared to 54 extracted, and identified using a polar gas chromatography column. The impact of salting out was minimal in comparison to gas chromatography column polarity and the differences between the extraction techniques. HiSorb extracted the most...

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