Substantial research has been carried out on rapid, nondestructive, and inexpensive techniques for predicting cheese composition using spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared radiation range. Moreover, in recent years, new portable and handheld spectrometers have been used to predict chemical composition from spectra captured directly on the cheese surface in dairies, storage facilities, and food plants, removing the need to collect, transport, and process cheese samples. For this review, we selected 71 papers (mainly dealing with prediction of the chemical composition of cheese) and summarized their results, focusing our attention on the major sources of variation in prediction accuracy related to cheese variability, spectrometer and spectra characteristics, and chemometrics techniques. The average coefficient of determination obtained from the validation samples ranged from 86 to 90% for predicting the moisture, fat, and protein contents of cheese, but was lower for predicting NaCl content and cheese pH (79 and 56%, respectively). There...

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