The Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) has identified that numerous dietary supplements contain unapproved (hidden, undeclared, and unauthorized) ingredients that could be unsafe. The aim of this study is to summarize the presence of unapproved ingredients in dietary supplements based on the warning dataset released by the MFDS from 2010 to 2019. The warning data were extracted from the alert system on the MFDS's website. The highest number (ratio) of products found in the dataset were marketed for sexual enhancement [770 (43.3%)], weight-loss [690 (38.8%)], muscular strengthening [243 (13.7%)], or relaxing [76 (4.3%)]. A total of 1779 products contained one or more unapproved ingredients. The most common unauthorized compounds were icariin, sildenafil, and tadalafil for sexual enhancement, yohimbine, sibutramine, and sennoside for weight loss, and yohimbine and icariin for muscular strengthening, and melatonin and 5-hydroxytryptophan for relaxing products, respectively. Unapproved ingredients continue to be identified in dietary supplements,...

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