Bias in dairy genetic evaluations, when it exists, has to be understood and properly addressed. The origin of biases is not always clear. We analyzed 40 yr of records from the Lacaune dairy sheep breeding program to evaluate the extent of bias, assess possible corrections, and emit hypotheses on its origin. The data set included 7 traits (milk yield, fat and protein contents, somatic cell score, teat angle, udder cleft, and udder depth) with records from 600,000 to 5 million depending on the trait, ~1,900, 000 animals, and ~5,900 genotyped elite artificial insemination rams. For the ~8% animals with missing sire, we fit 25 unknown parent groups. We used the linear regression method to compare "partial" and "whole" predictions of young rams before and after progeny testing, with 7 cut-off points, and we obtained estimates of their bias, (over) dispersion, and accuracy in early proofs. We tried (1) several scenarios...

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