Background. The NOVA classification distinguishes foods by level of processing, with evidence suggesting that ultra-processed foods (UPF) lead to obesity. The Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG), in contrast, discourage excess consumption of "discretionary foods" (DF), distinguished by their high saturated fat, added-sugars, alcohol, or sodium content. There is limited research that compares the classification systems in predicting health outcomes. Aim. To compare DF with UPF for predicting energy intake, body mass index (BMI) and nutrient composition in Australia. Methods. Participants in the Australian Health Survey 2011 to 12 were classified into tertiles of percentage energy (%E) from DF and UPF. Generalised-linear-models, adjusted for confounders, were used to assess outcomes. Results. Forty-one%E came from UPF and 34.4%E came from DF. Non-protein energy intake increased 2134 kJ between lowest and highest tertile of DF (P <.001) and 780 kJ for UPF (P <.001). Protein-energy remained relatively constant across the tertiles. After...

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