Background and aims. The impact of vitamin C supplementation on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains uncertain with inconsistent evidence obtained from observational studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs). We aimed to assess possible causal associations of vitamin C with major CVD events as well as their risk factors using Mendelian randomization (MR) design. Methods and results. Nine genetic variants associated with vitamin C at genome-wide significance (p < 5 × 10-8) were used as instrumental variables to predict plasma vitamin C levels. The primary outcomes were coronary artery disease (Ncase = 122,733 and Ncontrol = 424,528), atrial fibrillation (Ncase = 60,620 and Ncontrol = 970,216), heart failure (Ncase = 47,309 and Ncontrol = 930,014), and ischemic stroke (Ncase = 40,585 and Ncontrol = 406,111). Several CVD risk factors were also evaluated in secondary analyses. Two-sample MR analyses were performed using the inverse variance weighted method,...

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