The concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in milk samples (cow, buffalo, camel) from Rahim Yar Khan (RYK) district, Sadiqabad (SA), Khanpur (KP), and Liaqatpur (LP) was determined using a Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The mean concentrations milk samples were Zn > Fe > Cd > Cr > Cu. Copper (Cu) was absent in most milk samples, and the highest amounts of PTEs were detected in milk samples from the KP, and the lowest levels were observed in the RYK district. The mean concentration (0.0069 mg/kg) of Cr was found lower than the allowable limit implemented by World Health Organization (WHO) 1.61 mg/kg, and the levels of Cd (0.016 mg/kg) were found within the permissible limits. However, Cu (0.023 mg/kg), Fe (0.752 mg/ kg), and Zn (1.287 mg/kg) mean concentrations were observed to be above the daily intake limits implemented by the International Dairy Federation (IDF), i.e., (0.01 mg/kg), WHO...

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