Toddy is a traditional mild-alcoholic drink of India, which is produced from fresh palm saps by natural fermentation. We studied the successional changes in bacterial and fungal communities during the natural fermentation (0 h-96 h) of toddy. During fermentation, alcohol content of the fermenting saps increased significantly from 0.6%±0.15 to 5.6%±0.02, pH decreased from 6.33%±0.02-3.93±0.01, volatile and titratable acidity (g/100 mL) increased from 0.17±0.02 (0 h) to 0.48±0.02 (96 h) and 1.30±0.005 (0 h) to 2.47±0.005 (96 h), respectively. Total sugar content and °BRIX also decreased during the fermentation. Firmicutes (78.25%) was the most abundant phylum followed by Proteobacteria (21.57%). Leuconostoc was the most abundant genus in the early stages of fermentation. However, Lactobacillus and Gluconoacetobacter were found abundant with increase in pH during the later phases of fermentation (72 h-96 h). Ascomycota (99.02%) was the most abundant fungal phylum. Hanseniaspora was the abundant yeast in the initial stages...

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