Potable groundwater contamination by human enteric viruses poses serious health risks. Our understanding of virus subsurface transport has largely depended on studying bacteriophages as surrogates. Few studies have compared the transport behaviour of enteric viruses, especially norovirus, with phage surrogates. We conducted laboratory column experiments to investigate norovirus and bacteriophage MS2 (MS2) filtration in alluvial sand, and rotavirus, adenovirus and MS2 filtration in alluvial gravel aquifer media in 2 mM NaCl (pH 6.6-6.9) with pore velocities of 4.6-5.4 m/day. The data were analysed using colloid filtration theory and HYDRUS-1D 2-site attachment-detachment modelling. Norovirus removal was somewhat lower than MS2 removal in alluvial sand. The removal of rotavirus and adenovirus was markedly greater than MS2 removal in alluvial gravel. These findings concurred with the log10 reduction values, mass recoveries, attachment efficiencies and irreversible deposition rate constants. The modelling results suggested that the MS2 detachment rates were in the same order...

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