In this study, the manganese (Mn), aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), and mercury (Hg) levels of 60 bread samples were determined by ICP MS, all of which belong to different brands and businesses, are sold with and without packaging at national and local levels in Turkey, and then the bread types were compared statistically. Then, the heavy metal exposure arising from bread consumption of >15 year-old individuals, assessed non-carcinogenic risks, was calculated by using a deterministic model. The average Al, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb levels of all bread types were determined as 13,500 ± 20000, 83 ± 62, 24,200 ± 8900, 14 ± 14, 380 ± 320, 3640 ± 900, 19 ± 11, 15 ± 8, 0.4 ± 0.1, and 34 ± 29 μg/kg, respectively. The heavy metal levels of the bread types...

You do not currently have access to this content.