The presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in aquatic environments is of increasing concern due to the presence of residues in fish and aquatic organisms, and emerging antibiotic resistance. Wastewater release is an important contributor to the presence of these compounds in aquatic ecosystems, where they may accumulate in food webs. The traditional environmental surveillance approach relies on the targeted analysis of specific compounds, but more suspect screening methods have been developed recently to allow for the identification of a variety of contaminants. In this study, a method based on QuEChERS extraction-using acetonitrile/water mixture as solvent and PSA/C18 for sample clean-up-was applied to identify pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in fish livers. Both target and suspect screening workflows were used and fish were sampled upstream and downstream of wastewater treatment plants from the Scioto River, Ohio (USA). The method performed well in terms of extraction of some target...

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