Variations in the phosphorylation and glycosylation patterns of the common κ-casein (CN) variants A and B have been explored, whereas studies on variant E heterogeneity are scarce. This study reports for the first time the detailed phosphorylation and glycosylation pattern of the κ-CN variant E in comparison with variants A and B. Individual cow milk samples representing κ-CN genotype EE (n=12) were obtained from Swedish Red cows, and the natural posttranslational modifications of its κ-CN were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. In total, 12 unique isoform masses of κ-CN variant E were identified. In comparison, AA and BB milk consisted of 14 and 17 unique isoform masses, respectively. The most abundant κ-CN E isoform detected in the EE milk was the monophosphorylated, unglycosylated [1P 0G, ~70%; where P indicates phosphorylation from single to triple phosphorylation (1-3P), and G indicates glycosylation from single to triple glycosylation (1-3G)] form,...

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