Background. The relationship between diet and fertility continues to emerge, yet interventions underutilise this evidence within Australian primary health care (PHC). Infertility affects approximately 9% of the world's population and 16% of Australian couples trying to conceive naturally. Current PHC practices do not address nor encourage improved diet for sperm and oocyte quality, ovulation and sperm production. Due to a lack of resources and training, general practitioners typically refer these individuals to fertility clinics for medical management. As a result, Australia ranks as the sixth highest global utiliser of assisted reproductive technology, with annual costs to treat infertility exceeding $46 000 000. Aim. To synthesise current evidence for the diet-fertility relationship and identify suitable PHC interventions for improving fertility related lifestyle risk factors. Methods. A database search for published peer reviewed articles using MEDLINE, Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed and Global Health was conducted and narratively synthesised. Results. Poor diet, central...

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