The immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HDB1258 were evaluated in mice with colitis induced by Klebsiella oxytoca (KO). L. rhamnosus HDB1258 was cultured in the lava seawater (LS) to improve its probiotic properties. It increased adhesive ability to mucin with mRNA expression levels of chaperone proteins (such as GroEL/ES, DnaKJ, and HtrA). In the in vivo experiments, administration of KO caused an inflammation on the colon with gut dysbiosis. LH group (oral gavage of HDB1258 1.0 × 109 colony forming units/day) showed that inflammatory biomarkers, including IL-1 β, TNF-α, IL-6, and PGE2, were significantly decreased to less than half of the KO group, and Th1 cells were decreased in the spleen, but Treg cells were not affected. In contrast, the expression levels of secretory IgA and IL-10 were significantly increased, and the composition of gut microbiota in the LH group tended to recover similar...

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