Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), used extensively as substitutes for polybrominated diphenyl ethers, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. OPFR pollution in aquatic environments, the main sink of pollutants, has been studied extensively over the past decade. Here, we review the current knowledge on the consumption and applications of OPFRs, and on their ecotoxicity in aquatic environments worldwide. We also synthesize the available evidence on the occurrence of OPFRs in aquatic environments in China (wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent, surface water, sediment, aquatic biota, and drinking water). Across China, the measured concentrations of OPFRs differ by more than three orders of magnitude. Risk assessments based on these measurements indicate a low level of ecological risk from OPFRs in most aquatic environments in China, and a low risk to human health from drinking water and aquatic products. Finally, we identify gaps in the current knowledge and directions for further research on OPFRs in...

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