The therapeutic potential of using probiotics to treat osteoarthritis (OA) has only recently been recognized, with a small number of animal and human studies having been undertaken. The aim of this study was to describe the effect of a probiotic composition (PB) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), administered separately or in combination, on Tlr2, Tlr4, Nfkb1, and Comp gene expression in cartilage and levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TGF-β1, IGF-1) and COMP, ACAN, CHI3L1, CTSK, and TLR-2 in serum during monoiodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA in rats. Expression of Tlr2, Tlr4, Nfkb1, and Comp in cartilage was analyzed using one-step SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR. The levels of IL-6, IL-8, TGF-β1, IGF-1, COMP, ACAN, CHI3L1, CTSK, and TLR-2 were measured in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Experimental OA caused an upregulation in Tlr2, Tlr4, Nfkb1, and downregulation of Comp expression in the cartilage. MIA-OA caused...

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