This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of lead (Pb) immobilization by hydroxyapatite (HAP) in a soil-rice system, a pot experiment was conducted using Pb-contaminated soil amended with various rates of HAP and planted with rice (Oryza sativa L.). The Pb species in the soil and rice roots were determined using Pb L3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Application of HAP increased soil pH and induced the dissolution of phosphate, subsequently promoting the formation of chloropyromorphite, an insoluble Pb species, in the soil. Therefore, the acid soluble and DTPA-extractable Pb concentrations decreased significantly with increasing levels of applied HAP. HAP reduced the retention of Pb in the iron plaque on the root surface at maturity, thereby alleviating Pb uptake by rice roots. The amount of phosphate in roots were increased with increasing rate of application of HAP, but was negatively correlated with Pb in rice stems and leaves....

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