People are constantly exposed to phthalates, due to their common use in the production of plastics, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and skin care products. The ability of phthalates to disrupt endocrine signaling, leading to developmental, reproductive and metabolic defects, has been studied, yet how phthalates interfere with these biological functions is still unclear. To uncover DBP interacting molecular pathways, we raised Drosophila melanogaster on food containing dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at various concentrations. Whole transcriptome analysis of adult Drosophila reveals that DBP exposure throughout development disrupts the expression of genes central to circadian rhythm regulation, including increased expression of vrille (vri, human NFIL3), timeless (tim, human TIMELESS) and period (per, human PER3), with decreased expression of Pigment-dispersing factor (Pdf). DBP exposure also alters the expression of the evolutionarily conserved nuclear receptor Hormone receptor-like in 38 (Hr38, human NR4A2), which...

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